The main difficulties in agriculture of Karakalpakstan, especially in the northern regions, are associated with a low content of organic substances in the soil, widespread salinization of soils and high frequency of low water levels and hydrological drought, which is largely a consequence of climate change. These factors increase the risk of partial or even complete loss of planned crops, especially in dry years, when as a result of the lack of irrigation water the soil is excessively dried out, the crops completely die out. Large-scale losses of agricultural products, such as those resulting from severe droughts in 2000-2001, can threaten the country's food security.

To ensure sustainability of agriculture and food security here, first of all, it is necessary to implement a set of measures including forecasts of weather, hazardous meteorological phenomena and water availability, measures to ensure preparedness for possible risks associated with hydrometeorological phenomena and resource limitations. Here, measures to restore lost soil fertility due to excessive chemicalization and mechanization also play an important role.

According to the International Federation of the Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM), organic agriculture intends in the long term to maintain the health of both specific objects (plants, animals, soil, humans), and the entire planet.

Within the framework of our joint project with the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives “Enhancing the climate resilience of rural women in the most drought prone communities of the Aral Sea region through application of conservation agricultural practices”, we developed a guide “On the use of organic farming on household lands in the northern regions of Karakalpakstan”. The main goal of organic farming, compared with traditional (intensive), is more efficient use of soil, which contributes to an increase in crop yields, activation of soil microorganisms, an increase in the input of organic matter into the soil due to soil-protective resource-saving farming, which actively affects the fertility of arable lands and production better-quality, organic farming products.

Organic methods can reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 48–66% compared with conventional farms. This is due to high content of organic substances in organic soils, which allows the soil to capture and convert carbon, reducing its emissions over time.

Thus, the soil rich in organic matter provides savings in irrigation water and increases the resistance of plants to stress factors. See our publication for more.